As such, one should be even more surprised that there is still an absence of a journal in Germany that deals with the entire polytechnic spectrum; in other words, the natural sciences in general, chemistry, mineralogy, botany, agriculture and domestic management, the science of machines and commerce, the study of trade and goods.
Johann Gottfried Dingler in a foreword to his Polytechnischen Journal, 1820
Journal refers to the diary in which businessmen and -women (Trade, Factory) record all transactions as part of their bookkeeping, allocating items either to debit or credit. Entering income and expenditure opposite one another results in the profit and loss account (Capital). As a journalistic product, the journal is a kind of printed magazine mainly containing daily updated information, but can also be a specialist periodical dealing with scientific topics (Science).
New printing and illustration technologies provided the foundation for the spread of journals and magazines in the 19th century. Many texts contained in popular journals, such as the Pfennig-Magazin or the Polytechnisches Journal (published from 1820 to 1931), were illustrated, affording the textual content an added sense of clarity and impact.