• cadastre

    a state register of real estate ownership in a country, used as a basis for taxation
  • cadet corps

    a military school for young boys
  • calendar

    an overview of the days, weeks and months of the year as well as annual festivals and holidays
  • calendar reform (Roman)

    the transition from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in 1582 which involved skipping 10 days of the year and a revised leap-year system
  • calender

    a machine with a roller-system that improves the appearance of paper by means of smoothing, compressing and coating it
  • calendering

    the smoothing of the sheet paper surface using pressure rollers
  • calf binding

    durable book cover with deep folds
  • calico

    a cotton textile that has been used for the purposes of book binding since in the 19th century
  • calligraphy

    an ornate, handscript-based art form utilising a feather or brush
  • Calvinism

    term coined by the Lutherans for the teachings of the Swiss reformer Johannes Calvin and the Reformed Church
  • camera obscura

    optical experimental set-up enabling the projection of an upside-down image by means of a hole or lens
  • cameralism

    a German form of mercantilist economic policy with strong support for agriculture and demographic growth
  • cameralistics

    a period of training and education that was a requirement in the 18th and 19th centuries for employment in German public administration with a focus on financial administration and public policy science
  • camouflage publication

    political writings issued with innocuous and misleading titles and covers in order to avoid the attentions of a state censor
  • Cancellaria Apostolica

    The Papal Chancellery
  • canon

    a member of a cathedral chapter or collegiate church that contributes to a common liturgy
  • Capitalis

    monumental typescript using Latin uppercase lettering
  • capitals

    as the term majuscule (letter case), a name for the capital letters of an alphabet
  • card index

    title records or units of information recorded on individual cards and stored in a defined sorting order in catalogue cupboards
  • cardboard

    a flat substance made of plant fibres, with one or more layers and a mass per unit area of 600 g/m² and over
  • caricature

    a comically exaggerated portrayal of one or more persons or a set of social circumstances
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    measures passed in 1819 in the wake of the murder of the author August von Kotzebue which sought to censor the press and clamp down on freedoms of expression
  • Carolingian minuscule

    a handwritten script developed around 800 AD during the Carolingian Renaissance, combining uppercase letters (majuscules) with  lowercase letters (miniscules)
  • Carolingian Renaissance

    cultural renaissance (education, architecture, bookmaking) in the early-Middle Ages during the era of the Frankish ruling dynasty of the Carolingians
  • carta

    Latin term for papyrus sheet, later became “charter” referring to documents of all kinds
  • carton

    a container made from a single or multiple layers of paper derived from groundwood pulp, chemical pulp or recycled paper with an area density of between 150 and 600 g/m²
  • cartouche

    a decorative scrolling frame used in the baroque period in architecture, graphical art and book art
  • case in

    procedure in bookbinding by hand in which the book body is attached to the cover by means of a sheath
  • catalogue

    a register that serves as a general collection, a systematic inventory document or a form of accompanying documentation for an exhibition, range of products, etc.
  • Cataloguing in Publication (CIP)

    advance notification service fur as yet unpublished publications, existing in Germany in the period from 1971 to 2002
  • catchword

    the first word (or sometimes just a syllable) of the following page of a book appended at the foot of every page used to maintain the order and consistency of a work
  • Catholicon

    Latin dictionary including a grammar of the Dominican John Balbi of Genoa
  • cave paintings

    stone paintings located in caves or under rock peaks, often from the early-Palaeolithic era
  • censor

    person who is charged by a church or governmental authority with controlling publications
  • censorship

    political process controlling movement of information, either public or private, and suppressing it if necessary
  • censorship mark

    in Germany, a label on publications released for dissemination by military censors during the First World War
  • censorship stamp

    stamp on postal items that have been inspected by a state or military authority
  • census

    index of all examples of a work, an author, a printer or a publisher that can be found in one library or collection
  • central catalogue

    a catalogue that documents the collections of several libraries, in particular for interlibrary loans
  • chained book (liber catenatus)

    a book secured in a library by means of an iron chain attached to a bookrest so as to prevent unauthorised removal or theft
  • chalcographic title page

    an illustrated copper title page created using chalcography
  • chancellor

    the head or director of a chancery or (high-level) authority
  • character

    individual element of a writing system
  • character spacing

    spacing between individual characters
  • character system

    the overall context to which an individual character belongs (e.g. alphabet or Morse code)
  • character width

    is constant in all non-proportional fonts; variable in proportional fonts
  • characteristica universalis

    universal language, searched for by G. W.  Leibniz, with which all things and there interrelationships could be depicted with signs
  • charge coupled device (CCD)

    component of scanners and digital cameras that can convert light into electrical current or digital signals
  • charges

    set prices or fees, sometimes of an official, governmental nature
  • charteque

    derived from the Latin “carta” (paper, or “charter”) the term denotes an old book whose cover was made of sheets of parchment
  • chartulary

    an archival source containing transcripts of certificates/deeds
  • chest

    chest for keeping valuable documents and other items in, e.g. those kept by a guild
  • chiaroscuro

    technique, from the Italian for light-dark, used in the graphic arts and painting aimed at increasing the three-dimensionality and expression
  • children’s book

    literature that seeks to appeal to children through the use of illustrations and other appropriate elements
  • Chinese characters

    characters created for the fixing of the Chinese language, which also attained great significance in the Korean and Japanese languages
  • chinoiserie

    motifs, patterns and designs for interior design and porcelain, etc., developed following Chinese examples
  • chivalric romance

    a style of prose and verse narrative popular among members of the medieval court
  • chrestomathy

    collection of predominantly literary works for educational use
  • chromo paper

    paper, usually of wood pulp, painted on one side, of particular relevance for lithographic printing
  • chromolithography

    also known as colour lithography; procedure for reproducing original graphics or reproductions in colour, using one stone for each colour
  • chronicle

    an account of history listing historical events in chronological order
  • chronogram

    characters embedded in a motto or inscription that simultaneously form Roman numerals thus also indicating the year
  • chronology

    the science of time, dating the years and calendar systems
  • chrysography

    medieval handwriting whose letters and painted objects are partially or completely made with gold tincture
  • Church Fathers

    authors of the 8th century who made a considerable contribution to the teachings and identity of Christianity
  • Cicero

    in typographic measuring systems, the scale for a type size of 12 points
  • cimelia

    rare and valuable ancient manuscripts and prints that are very important in the collection or library
  • cipher

    encoded characters in a secret text
  • civilian

    a person belonging to a society who is not a member of its military
  • civilisation

    a way of life developed and ordered according to bourgeois perceptions
  • class

    a legally, socially and largely culturally enclosed group linked through commonalities relating to ancestry, profession, property or education
  • Classicism

    an era of art history lasting from approximately 1770 to 1840
  • classified catalogue

    a library subject catalogue with documents systematically grouped together according to their subject relevance
  • clay tablet

    clay writing slab primarily used to display cuneiform script that was stamped into the surface
  • clearing

    book traders used to clear their payments at the book fairs in Frankfurt and Leipzig, then The Traders' Payment Clearing Company arose
  • clergy

    the collective body of ordained members within a holy order
  • client

    computer program that calls up services from another computer program via a server
  • client-server system

    network architecture for digital systems connecting several workstations to centrally provided services
  • CMYK colour space

    standardized colour space defined by the four print colours of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (key colour)
  • coat of arms

    a shield-shaped, coloured and well-defined badge of a person, house, institution or community
  • coated paper

    through the application of a compound comprising pigment and binding agent, paper is given a sealed surface suitable for printmaking
  • coating

    application of an adhesive layer (glossy or non-glossy) to one or both sides of a page used in making image printing or art print paper
  • code

    agreed system for how to convert individual orders and messages for a corresponding target system
  • code civil (Code Napoléon)

    French civil law that was brought into force in 1804 and gained influence in the states of the Confederation of the Rhine
  • codex

    originally a term for a book form consisting of stitched folio sheets
  • Codex Argenteus (Silver Book)

    famous Gothic manuscript in the Uppsala University Library, the Bishop Wulfila’s translation of the gospels
  • Codex Aureus (Gold Book)

    illuminated Gospel books from Echternach and Regensburg, today located in Nuremburg and Munich
  • codex book form

    particular book form, as opposed to scrolls and folded books
  • codicology

    an auxiliary branch of historical study that deals with the handwriting of the ancient world and the Middle Ages
  • coffee-table book

    book made to make an impression on a coffee table, often highly priced
  • coin

    flat and circular metal disc, usually cast and struck used as a method of payment
  • collected edition

    a work compiled by an editor and released by a publishing house that collects the opinion of several authors on one topic
  • collection

    term used by many publishers for a series of published works
  • collector's edition

    special edition for collectors and bibliophiles
  • college

    an organisation of students
  • collotype

    photomechanical method for the planographic printing of halftones without a grid
  • colony

    settlement which can also be a foreign, dependent territory of a state
  • colophon

    a text at the end of a book that provides details on the time, place and publisher in addition to other information of relevance to the publication
  • colophon (printer's mark)

    registered trademark from the older printer characters
  • colour depth

    unit of measurement for the volume of colour nuances that a digital output device can depict
  • colour lithography

    process also known as chromolithography which renders original graphics or reproductions by printing each base colour on a different stone
  • colour management system

    computer program predominantly used at the printing stage to balance the colour spaces of input and output devices
  • colour model

    classification system for the description of colours, e.g.  the RGB colour space for monitors or the CMYK colour space used in colour printing
  • colour printing

    printing with multiple colours that are either laid down next to each other of printed on top of each other with the aim of producing an optical mixing effect
  • colour separation

    computer-aided separating out of the proportions of the base colours in colour printing
  • colour separation

    in colour printing, the proportions of the base colours cyan, magenta, yellow and yellow or a chromatic colour
  • colour separation

    in colour printing, the proportions of the base colours cyan, magenta, yellow and yellow or a chromatic colour
  • coloured edges

    the trimmed upper edge, or more edges, of the book body are decorated with the application of colour
  • coloured paper

    paper that is subsequently refined mechanically or manually by tinting, painting or other techniques and serves as material for book covers
  • coloured woodblock

    multi-coloured woodblock, printed either from multiple plates or differently inked parts of a single plate
  • colportage (book peddling)

    the distribution of books via door-to-door sales by carriers or “colporteurs”
  • colportage book trade (book peddling)

    the sale of literature by travelling salespeople
  • colporteur (book peddler)

    a person selling books door-to-door
  • column title

    a title in the heading line of every page of a book that quickly reminds the reader about the theme or content of the work at hand
  • comic (comic strip)

    picture story consisting of individual pictures compiled together
  • communication

    interaction with others through information exchange
  • communications infrastructure

    a component of the broader term “information structure” (telephone, data and radio networks, etc.)
  • compact disc (CD)

    optical storage medium with different formats for audio and data storage
  • compact disc-read only memory (CD-ROM)

    optical storage medium with special storage format for data
  • compact disc-recordable (CD-R)

    optical storage medium that may be written on once (in stages if need be)
  • compact disc-rewriteable (CD-RW)

    optical storage medium that may be written on repeatedly after a delete procedure (in stages if need be)
  • compendium

    a short reference guide or text book that provides a brief summary of a particular subject
  • compilation

    an often superficial and indiscriminate roundup of musical or literary works
  • composing stick

    a device with adjustable width used by the typesetter for assembling the types of an individual line in the correct sequence
  • composite manuscript

    a number of manuscripts compiled in one volume
  • computer mouse

    standard input device for computers with graphical user interfaces
  • computer to film

    computer-aided film mounting at the pre-press stage
  • computer to plate

    computer-aided direct (without film) exposure of the plate in the platesetter
  • computer to press

    computer-aided direct (without film) exposure of the plate in the printing press
  • computer typesetting

    computer-aided typesetting assisted by appropriate software (desktop publishing)
  • computus

    medieval computation of the calendar and the date of Easter
  • concordance

    a primarily alphabetically sorted word and terminology index of a work with page references
  • confiscation

    seizure or disappropriation of goods or property e.g. by the state
  • Constructivism

    Abstract art based on geometric and technical design principles, mostly with large colour surfaces and basic geometric forms
  • contemplation

    thoughtful or long consideration e.g. of the aesthetics of an art work
  • contemporary history

    a period from which eye witnesses are still alive, as well as the academic study of this period
  • content producer

    author of media content such as writers or editors
  • content provider

    publisher of media content
  • Continental System

    an economic blockade imposed by Napoleon against Great Britain between 1806 and 1814
  • continuous text

    in typesetting, text running without breaks such as paragraphs or sub-headings, etc.
  • convent

    a community of nuns, or the building used by that community
  • copper-etching title page

    engravings on copper plates decorating the title page of a book
  • copperplate engraving (chalcography)

    a graphic printing process which involves engraving an image in a copper plate using an etching needle
  • copy

    a duplicate that is faithful to the original; a transcript; generally: the result of reproducing an original
  • copy (book publishing)

    text of a book, as written by the author himself, which is then subsequently checked by a copy editor
  • copyright

    protection granting the creator of a work exclusive rights to its use and distribution, signified with the symbol ©
  • copyright law

    law relating to the protection of intellectual property governing questions of publication and use, and the transfer of rights on death
  • copyright levy

    standard, legally prescribed surcharge on the price of devices with which copies can be made
  • copyright of titles

    titles of works of literature, publications or audio/visual media are subject to copyright protection which can be applied for in advance of their release
  • correction mark

    a standardised symbol designating errors in a work and indicated in the right margin of the page
  • coucher

    a papermaker who, “couches” a new sheet of paper (the process of removing it from a mould) or presses the fresh sheet on felts
  • council

    an assembly of church delegates
  • courier

    a person who carrying or delivering news or messages
  • court jester

    a professional clown at a royal court who was afforded the right to speak his mind freely
  • court library

    the library of a royal residence
  • cover

    the outer casing enclosing the book body, consisting of a jacket and spine
  • cover (binding)

    originally book covers and bindings, currently primarily media design regarding advertising and promotional effectiveness
  • cover decoration

    adornment of the book cover by embossing, printing or goldwork, etc.
  • cover indenter

    stamp used by bookbinders for the decoration of the cover
  • cover research

    branch of book and library studies dealing with the recording, description and classification of book covers
  • cover types

    these can be differentiated according to production methods (hand-bound, industrial binding), type of material and specific form of construction
  • critical apparatus

    scholarly commentary on a work in the form of footnotes, addenda or a supplementary volume
  • cross media publishing

    on the basis of media-neutral data, both physical and digital media are produced and published in different formats
  • cryptanalysis

    a science devoted to the deciphering of encrypted information
  • cryptography

    a science that deals with the encryption of information and issues of information security
  • cryptology

    a science which deals with issues of encryption (cryptography) and decryption (cryptanalysis)
  • cult language

    a sacred language used exclusively or predominantly in a religious context
  • culture

    that which mankind produces through a creative impulse
  • cuneiform script

    an ancient script form comprising vertical, horizontal and angled  wedge-shaped stylus marks in clay
  • cursive

    handwriting or running writing in which single letters are often joined; also replicated today in font form
  • custodian

    a person entrusted with guarding a building or museum collection
  • customs duty

    a transport tax that is levied on goods as an import, export or transit duty when crossing a border
  • customs union

    a kind of federation of states that constitutes a common economic area
  • cut plate edition

    books with blank pages on which drawings or engravings can be inserted
  • cyan

    one of the four base colours of the CMYK colour space, together with magenta, yellow und schwarz (key colour)
  • cylinder rotary press

    printing technique in which a rotary printing press uses roll paper
  • cylinder seal

    cylindrical engraved stones that can be rolled on soft materials thus leaving an impression in the form of a relief
  • Cyrillic script

    Church Slavonic script, the invention of which is sometimes falsely attributed to the Greek missionary Cyril who was an apostle for Slavic peoples
  • to cipher

    a secret form of writing with unconventional characters and/or unorthodox use of standard letters and numbers