• paganism

    a denomination formed by Christians that considers other religions to be heathenism
  • page assembly

    computer-aided assembly of the individual elements of a page
  • page description language

    formalised language for the precise description and output of the digitally created pages of a document
  • paging

    consecutive numbering of each individual page in a codex or book
  • pagoda

    a tower-like building with several floors in Buddhist Asia
  • paintbrush

    tool for the application of ink or paint (also used in digital image editing)
  • palaeography

    the study of ancient writing, of auxiliary importance in history and philology
  • Palatina

    name of the important Renaissance library in Heidelberg, large parts of which were transported to Rome in 1623
  • paleotypography

    the study of printed matter from the period of early printings
  • palimpsest

    lettering that was written on antique or medieval parchment, where the original writing was removed
  • pallet

    bookbinding tool for the gilding of book covers
  • pamphlet

    publication of small scale, with maximum 48 pages
  • pantheon

    ancient name for a temple dedicated to all gods
  • paper

    a flat substance made of plant fibres, used as a medium for writing and images. It can be processed well either by hand or using machines
  • paper test

    checking the properties of paper, card and cardboard using a standardised procedure
  • paper weight

    finely designed or repurposed objects for weighting down lightweight papers
  • paperback

    term for publications with a paper-bound cover
  • paperback

    a light book in a small format held together with glue and with a paperboard cover
  • papyrology

    area of classical studies that focuses on written sources from Egypt
  • papyrus

    writing material made from the pith of the papyrus plant, by placing two layers on top of each other crossways
  • paragraph

    a short, numbered section of a legal text, a textbook or a contract
  • paratexts

    the texts that supplement the main text of a book, e.g. prologue, epilogue, dedications, etc.
  • parchment

    a writing material obtained from animal skins, with hair on one side and flesh on the other
  • parliament

    constitutional assembly resulting from elections; instrumental in the legislative process, formation of governments, etc.
  • parlour

    a room for receiving guests and socialising or a place for literary or philosophical discussions
  • paste paper

    a type of paper decoration which involves the application of coloured paste onto the page and shaping it into ornate forms
  • paste print

    a graphic relief printing process of the 15th and 16th centuries
  • patent

    official document regarding a legal act, e.g. appointment as an officer, ennoblement, or the awarding of inventor's rights
  • Patristics

    a science that covers the teachings of the fathers of the church in the 1st to 8th century from a theological and/or philosophical point of view
  • patron

    person assisting other persons or entities by money or financial funds
  • Paupers’ Bible

    late-medieval instructional and devotional book which combined important episodes from the Old and New Testaments in pictures
  • penny dreadful

    trivial literature in a cheap, A5 magazine format
  • Pentateuch

    the Five Books of Moses, the content of the Hebrew Torah and the Old Testament in the Bible
  • perfect binding

    a cost-effective bookbinding process whereby raw paper pages are bound using a suitable glue
  • pericope

    a part of the Bible intended for reading during worship
  • perimeter calculation

    to determine the expected page scope, the range of a text for a given layout
  • period

    a long historical period of time
  • periodical

    a regularly published printed work such as a newspaper, magazine, journal or a series of booklets
  • periodisation

    division of history into time periods distinguished by particular common features
  • petition

    a request, generally for political action to be taken
  • pharaoh

    designation for the ancient Egyptian rulers
  • phototypesetting

    process of typesetting by exposing characters by the use of optical and optoelectronic processes
  • pictogram

    image that conveys information using a simplified graphical representation
  • pictorial title page

    a title page bearing not only the author and title, but is also illustrated, e.g. with an engraving
  • picture writing

    script consisting of simplified symbols, whose meaning can be deduced directly from its depiction
  • piecework

    a contract for work paid piece-rate (as opposed to by the hour)
  • Pietism

    reform movement of continental European Protestantism since the second half of the 18th century
  • pigment

    colourant, which unlike the dyes in application media (e.g. paint or synthetic), is not soluble
  • pilgrimage

    a visit to a holy place in order to fulfil a commandment
  • pinacotheca

    room for a collection of pictures
  • piracy

    act of violence against a ship on the high seas in order to steal the cargo or to unlawfully take charge of the ship
  • pirate edition

    unauthorised reprint of a publication
  • pixel

    picture element of a bit-mapped graphic, derived from the term "picture element"
  • pixels per inch

    measure to specify the density of pixels in a visual bit-mapped picture
  • place of publication

    location where a work first appears, normally the location of the publishers
  • place of publishing

    address of the publisher, as recorded in the commercial register
  • planographic printing

    printing processes in which printed and non-printed areas lie on the same level, e.g.  lithography, offset printing, collotype
  • pogrom

    planned, mass plundering and persecution of Jewish population groups or other minority nationalities or religions
  • point

    a typographical unit of measurement for defining the size of fonts and other items on the printed page
  • point size

    type sizes which are assigned special names in the typography industry
  • police

    in modern times, the authorities responsible for matters of public safety and order
  • polyglot

    a work which conveys the same content in multiple languages
  • polygraphy

    term which incorporates the reproduction and duplication of text and images as well as bookbinding
  • pontifical vestments

    an insignia of dignity in the Catholic Church (mitre, crosier, pectoral cross) as well as special robes for popes, bishops and abbots
  • Pope

    the official title for the leader of the Roman Catholic Church, also the head of state of the Vatican City
  • popular prints

    irregularly disseminated printed booklets consisting of several pages; some of the earliest examples of mass media
  • portable document format (pdf)

    platform-independent document format that is widely used both in the printing industry and in digital publications
  • Portable Network Graphics (PNG)

    graphic format for bit-mapped graphics with loss-free image compression
  • portrait

    representation of a person in pictorial form: in a print, a painting, a photograph or a sculpture
  • PostScript (PS)

    page description language which is used as a vector graphics format for digital documents and printers
  • Postzeitung

    a newspaper run by the postmasters from the Thurn and Taxis princely house
  • praenumeration

    transaction type in the book trade in the 18th century, whereby a book was paid for upon advance ordering, before it was published
  • pre-censorship

    form of censorship, where freedom of expression is interfered with prior to publication
  • pre-literate society

    a society that still relies on oral communication
  • pre-press

    the sum of all sub-processes that bring together the text, images and graphics onto a printable plate or image-carrier
  • preceptor

    designation for the teacher, especially for tutors in the Middle Ages and early modern times
  • presbyter

    a person who holds a leading position in a church
  • presenter

    in the modern media a person who is engaged in directing a conversation or other forms of communication
  • press freedom

    the right of printed media, radio, television and internet presence to carry out their purpose freely and without censorship
  • press proof

    print, made with the paper and inks of the later production print, for checking the tonal and colour values
  • primary source

    first-hand report or relic that reports or attests to a historical event directly
  • primer (ABC book)

    a book for first and beginner readers, often furnished with pictures
  • print

    a printed sheet from a woodblock, copperplate, lithography stone, screenprint, etc.
  • print characteristics

    characteristics of a piece of printed matter enabling the printing process to be recognised
  • print run

    the number of copies of a book or other medium that are produced at the same time
  • print sheet

    sheet of paper that is to be printed, or already has been and still requires folding and cutting
  • print space

    the format and position of the area on the paper that is to be printed
  • printer-publishers

    printers from early book printing who also took on the publishing risk for sales
  • printer’s mark

    trademark of print shops from which publishers marks and modern logos have developed
  • printers’ registration

    a quality factor in printing concerning the alignment precision between front and back of a page
  • printing

    originally synonymous with letterpress relief printing, today books are mostly produced using offset printing, a form of planographic printing
  • printing machine

    machine that carries out the inking up of the plates or other image-carriers, the printing of the sheets, and also the transfer of the image in offset lithography
  • printing on demand (POD)

    method whereby printing is done to order
  • printing paper

    term for types of paper that are suitable for printing
  • printing plate

    image-carrier consisting of a single plate of wood, metal or stone, etc.
  • printing press

    a mechanical machine with which text and images can be transferred onto printing material by the use of inked printing plates
  • printing registration

    precise, exact overlapping print of the four colours cyan, magenta, yellow and key (black)
  • printing substrate

    raw materials suitable to be printed on, such as paper, card, cardboard or transparencies
  • private

    everything that is neither public nor state-owned
  • private press

    printing workshop which produces printed material that is not for the book-selling trade on a small scale
  • privilege

    priority given to a person, corporation or a commercial enterprise, e.g. a printer or publisher
  • privy seal

    a seal of authentication first used in the Middle Ages
  • processor

    computer component which controls processes or software which can process input to produce output
  • proclamation

    public appeal or public declaration
  • product group

    part of a range that is broken down according to organisational and formal aspects as well as content considerations
  • professional fee

    a charge for the freelance services of an author, illustrator, editor, translator, etc.
  • proof

    for checking the composition, layout and image reproduction of a sample print-out produced
  • proofreading

    inspection of a textual composition for the purposes of conformity with the original text, as performed by an author, editor, etc. with indication of any necessary corrections
  • propaganda

    systematic and intentional attempt to gain followers, particularly by using the media for specific opinions
  • prophet

    enunciator of a religious message
  • prosopography

    in history, the systematic investigation of a group of people
  • prospectus

    a means of advertisement reproduced by printing, of significant importance when selling books and magazines
  • Protestantism

    Christian religious orientation which arose from the Reformation and which distinguishes itself from the Roman Catholic Church
  • provenance

    in the book trade, the previous owner; in archives and museums, the origin of pieces of writing, pictures and collector's items
  • province

    an administrative unit in church and state sector
  • Psalter

    the Book of Psalms in the Old Testament of the Bible
  • pseudonym

    fictitious name that a person uses instead of their civil name
  • public access

    general and free access to data which acts as a basis for the free expression of opinions
  • public library

    a publicly accessible library which provides both a range of services and media for the general public
  • public library movement

    movement for reform of German public libraries in the late 19th century
  • public relations

    the organisation of publicity for people, organisations, companies or authorities
  • publisher

    person who runs a media company
  • publisher's brochure

    brochure commissioned by the publisher
  • publishing house

    media companies involved in the acquisition of author's rights and the creation, reproduction and  distribution of works
  • publishing studies

    the academic study of publication, and publication itself as a sector of mass communication and mass media
  • pulp

    raw material chemically extracted from plant fibres from wood and annuals for paper production
  • pulping

    crushing the unsold remnants of books into a wet mass
  • pulpit

    raised platform in a church, synagogue or mosque from which a preacher presents the word of God
  • punch card

    specially manufactured paper disk where the data content has been coded using an arrangement of holes