• Rabbi

    in Judaism, a teacher of the Torah, also an honorary title for a scholar of Jewish writings
  • Radio

    a device for receiving radio transmissions
  • rag paper

    paper produced from old cotton (rags/torn cloth)
  • random access memory (RAM)

    a form of computer data storage from which data can be accessed directly
  • rapid press

    printing machine that mechanised the processes of colouring and printing and thus gradually replaced the hand press
  • rare books

    special and seldom treasures in the collections of libraries and archives, but also in private collections
  • raster (digital image processing)

    a rectangular pattern of parallel scanning lines broken up into individual pixels
  • raster image processor (RIP)

    hardware of software solution that converts digital data into printable raster images
  • ratings

    the percentage of total audience share that watches or listens to a TV or radio program
  • Ratsschule

    a form of municipal school in the Late Middle Ages in Germany run and taught by clergy
  • raw sheet

    the printed paper that comes out of the printing machine in stacks and is then further processed in bookbinding
  • read-only memory (ROM)

    a permanent storage medium, the contents of which can be read again and again but not altered
  • reader

    a compilation of scientific/academic texts designed for lectures, seminars and conferences
  • reading society

    club-like association of like-minded individuals dedicated to the maintenance of a shared library and reading rooms
  • realism

    the unvarnished representation of social issues in in literature and art initiated in the 19th century
  • Realschule

    a type of secondary school that emerged in the 18th century in Germany with a strong orientation towards practical instruction
  • ream

    the customary unit of measurement for packages of identically sized sheets of paper
  • rebus

    a series of pictures and symbols represent words or parts of words in the form of a puzzle
  • recipient

    a person receiving a message in a media communication process
  • recommended retail price

    the fixed price for a book issued by the publisher (including VAT)
  • Reconquista

    a Spanish or Portuguese term for the Christian reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula under Islamic (Moorish) rule
  • record

    English term for the written chronicles, protocols, documents
  • recording technologies

    systems for the recording of analogue or digital data
  • recto

    refers to the “front” side of a sheet of paper and applies for different writing materials like papyrus, parchment or paper
  • recycled paper

    paper made out of the prepared fibres from waste paper
  • red hot

    damage to leather-bound books caused by unsuitable tanning methods
  • reed pen

    a quill cut from a reed straw or bamboo
  • reference works

    works published digitally or in book form providing quick access to knowledge by means of alphabetical or systematic arrangement
  • reform

    the systematic, mostly large-scale transformation of existing conditions and systems
  • Reformation

    a process of renewal within the Church that began in 1517 and led to a denominational split in western Christianity
  • refreshable braille display

    special computer output device for displaying braille characters
  • Réfugiés

    Protestant refugees who fled from France and found shelter in other European countries as Huguenots
  • regesta

    in the humanities, a compilation of the contents of medieval and Early Modern documents
  • regional history

    branch of historical science that deals with the exploration of territories, landscapes and districts
  • register

    public register, parental roll
  • registry

    an alphabetic list of terms and descriptions
  • Reich Chamber of Culture

    an institution created in 1933 to enforce Nazi cultural policy with the aim of surveillance and “Gleichschaltung” (being brought into line with Nazi doctrine)
  • reject

    error-ridden products that do not match up to the prescribed quality standards
  • relief printing

    a mechanical printing process in which inked printing surface faces are positioned higher than non-printing surface faces
  • remaindered books

    books sent back by bookshops to the publishing houses due to defects or because the recommended retail price has been revoked
  • Renaissance

    the general rediscovery of a past epoch; in particular, the art epoch in the 15th and 16th centuries
  • Renaissance-Antiqua

    special form of early Venetian and French Antiqua typefaces and their successors
  • rendering

    the process of generating an image from a model using computer programs
  • rent-roll

    systematic medieval directory of goods and taxes
  • reprint

    new edition of a book in an existing format
  • reproduction

    duplicate or copy of a document or image
  • reproduction sample

    master of a document or image that is used to produce reproductions
  • reprographics

    copying processes which make it possible to reproduce a copy or multiple copies from an original document
  • residenz

    used in German to describe in particular the building or town where a sovereign ruler resides
  • resolution

    the level of detail of a raster image
  • retail bookseller

    owner or employee of a bookstore retail unit
  • retouching

    subsequent manipulation of photos or digital images, either manually or computer-aided, to improve the results
  • retrieval

    computer-supported search for information in a database
  • retroactive censorship

    a form of censorship which involves altering or banning a work that has already been published
  • reverse

    the rear side of a coin or bank note; opposite of obverse
  • review

    a written critique of a medial work or a performance
  • revised title edition

    a work that has already been published, is no longer commercially viable and is then reissued with a new title but using the same set of printed sheets
  • RFID

    radio frequency identification: for automatically identifying and tracking tags attached to objects using electromagnetic waves
  • RGB colour space

    an additive colour space based on the RGB colour model (RGB stands for red, green, blue)
  • RGB image

    an image depicted in the colour space defined by additive primaries red, green and blue on television, computer screens or in beamers
  • rhapsodist

    a wandering singer in Ancient Greece who performed epic poems at social gatherings and celebrations
  • ritual

    a secular or religious act carried out in a predefined form (with predefined phrases and gestures) and symbolic in character
  • river

    in typesetting, when coincidental alignment of gaps in sentences result in what appears to be a “river” running through a paragraph
  • Rococo

    late phase of the Baroque era (approx. 1730-1775) in which playful forms were dominant according to the beauty ideals of court society
  • Rodel

    in medieval Germany, a deed in the form of scroll
  • roll of arms

    a directory of coats of arms compiled by the herald for the purpose of checking and identifying the same
  • roll paper

    an endless strip of paper produced by a paper machine which is cut to a width suitable for use in a printing machine
  • roll to roll offset printing

    printing using an offset printing machine, in which the paper is fed directly from the roll
  • roller handstamp

    a book-binding tool for applying gold ornamentation to book covers
  • Roman numerals

    a numerical system that uses combinations of letters of the alphabet to signify numerical values
  • Romanesque period

    an epoch in art history between 1000 and 1200 AD which brought forth important works of architecture, book illumination, sculpture and mural art
  • Romanticism

    an epoch in art history (circa 1790-1850) during which painting, literature and music were afforded special significance
  • rotary printing

    printing system in which the image carrier and the platen rotate against one another
  • rotary printing press

    collective term for the different printing presses suitable for rotary printing
  • rotogravure

    intaglio printing method using steel cylinders
  • rotulus

    originally the general term for book scrolls
  • rotunda

    a form of script that emerged in the Gothic era; it belongs to the group of blackletter scripts
  • rtf

    Rich Text Format, a file and data exchange format for formatted texts
  • rubbing

    transfer of a surface structure onto paper by means of pencil, crayon, etc.
  • Rubbing (printing)

    printing a woodcut, linocut or metalcut without a printing press using a rubber
  • rubrication

    the work done by a rubricator when creating medieval manuscripts, namely applying text in red ink as an element for structure, emphasis or decoration
  • rubricator

    a specialised medieval scribe who adorned manuscripts with text in red ink as an element for structure, emphasis or decoration
  • runes

    inscriptions of graphic characters, mainly in stone, by the Germanic peoples from the 2nd-14th centuries, containing both alphabetic and ideographic runes
  • rural depopulation

    the economically motivated movement of population groups from the agrarian-rural to the urban-industrial